Alzheimer’s disease

What is Alzheimer’s disease: Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Treatment

Table of Contents

According to the National Library of Medicine Alzheimer’s disease is a serious problem that affects a lot of people around the world. It makes it hard for them to remember things and do everyday tasks. This happens because there are unusual things in the brain that stop it from working well. At first, it messes with the part of the brain that helps make new memories. Then, it spreads and affects other parts. People with Alzheimer’s might forget things or have trouble recognizing friends and family. Even though getting older is a factor, other things like family history and lifestyle can also make someone more likely to get it. 

Symptoms of Alzheimer disease?

Forgetting Things:

People with Alzheimer’s might forget things they just learned or important dates. They might ask the same questions over and over.

Problem – Solving Issues:

They may find it hard to plan things or solve problems. Doing everyday tasks might take longer.

Confusion about Time and place:

They can get mixed up about what day it is or where they are. Sometimes, they might not remember how they got somewhere.

Trouble with seeing and Understanding:

It could be tough for them to judge distances or understand what they see. Reading, recognizing things, or driving might become difficult.

Difficulty with Words:

Speaking or writing might become a challenge. They could have trouble finding the right words or might use the wrong names for things.


Misplacing Things:

They might put things in odd places and then forget where they put them. Sometimes, they may think others took their things.

Making bad Decisions:

They might make poor choices in daily activities or with money. Sometimes, they fall for scams or buy strange things.

Not Wanting to Do Things:

They could lose interest in things they used to enjoy. Like hobbies or being with friends. They might spend more time alone.


Mood Changes:

Their mood might swing a lot. They might get more easily upset or act differently than they Used to.

Trouble with Daily Tasks:

Everyday tasks, like getting dressed or cooking, can become hard for them.

Causes of Alzheimer’s disease?


If someone in your family had Alzheimer’s, it might increase your chances of having it too.


As people get older, the chances of having Alzheimer’s go up. Most people with Alzheimer’s are 65 years old or older.

Genetic Changes

Sometimes, changes in your genes (the things you inherit from your family) can cause Alzheimer’s , especially if it starts when you’re younger.


Brain Changes:

Inside the brain of someone with Alzheimer’s, there are unusual things called plaques and tangles that make it hard for the brain cells to talk to each other.



If your brain is always a bit inflamed, it might increase the chances of getting Alzheimer’s.

Heart and Blood Vessel issues:

Problems with the heart and blood vessels, like high blood pressure or diabetes, could make Alzheimer’s more likely.

Things in the Environment:

Being around certain things in the air or environment might have a small role in getting Alzheimer’s

How you Live:

Not exercising, eating unhealthy foods, smoking or drinking a lot might increase the chances of Alzheimer’s


Head Injuries:

If you’ve had a really bad head injury, especially one where you lose consciousness, it could raise the chances of getting Alzheimer’s.

Stages of Alzheimer disease?

Early signs (Preclinical Stage):

  • Special tests show early signs.
  • No obvious problems yet.

Nothing changes (Mild Cognitive Impairment – MCl):

  • Small changes in memory and thinking.
  • Not big enough to stop normal life.
  • Forgetting things or having trouble with words.

Getting Harder (Mild Alzheimer’s Disease):

  • Memory gets worse.
  • Trouble with everyday tasks.
  • Forgetting names and faces.

More Challenges (Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease):

  • Big problems in daily life.
  • Can’t recognize family or friends.
  • Changes in how a person acts.
  • Hard to talk and communicate.

Big Changes (Severe Alzheimer’s Disease):

  • Really big problems with thinking.
  • Hard to do basic things alone.
  • Can’t communicate well.

Last Stage (End – Stage Alzheimer’s Disease):

  • Can’t move around, mostly in bed.
  • Can’t respond to what’s happening.
  • Need lots of help with basic things.

What is the difference between Alzheimer’s and dementia?


Dementia is not a disease itself. It’s like an umbrella term for problems with memory. Thinking, and how we act with others.

Why It Happens:

There are many reasons why someone might have dementia. It could be because of Alzheimer’s, but there are other causes too, like problems with blood flow to the brain or different kinds of damage to the brain.

What it Looks like:

Dementia makes things like remembering stuff, talking, and making good decisions harder. The exact problems can change depending on why someone has dementia.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s is one specific reason why someone might have dementia; it’s the most common one.

Why It Happens:

In Alzheimer’s, there are weird things building up in the brain that make brain cells die. We’re not exactly sure why this starts to happen.

What it Looks like:

At first, someone might have trouble remembering things and solving problems. As it goes on, it gets harder to talk, mood swings can happen, and everyday things become tough.

Main Differences


Dementia is like a big group of problems; Alzheimer’s is one type in that group.

Why it Happens:

Alzheimer’s has its own reason, like stuff building up in the brain. Dementia can happen for many reasons.

How Common:

 Lots of people with dementia have Alzheimer’s It’s the most commo


In short, dementia is a big word for memory and thinking problems, and Alzheimer’s is one reason why someone might have these problems

Important key points you should know about Alzheimer’s Disease?

  1. Alzheimer’s is a sickness that makes the brain not work right.
  2. It’s the most common reason why people have problems with memory and thinking.
  3. Many times, older people get Alzheimer’s, but not always.
  4. Sometimes, if someone in your family had it, you might get a tooth. But not always.
  5. In Alzheimer’s, the brain has some strange things that shouldn’t be there. They can hurt
  6. the brain
  7. At first, it’s hard to remember recent things or names of people.
  8. It keeps getting worse. It’s not just forgetting. It can be hard to talk, solve problems, and
  9. do regular things.
  10. Doctors can check if someone has Alzheimer’s. They ask questions and do some tests.
  11. Right now, there’s no cure, but doctors can help with some medicines.
  12. It makes it hard to do regular things like eating or getting dressed.
  13. Many people around the world have Alzheimer’s. It’s not just one person.
  14. Families and friends can help someone with Alzheimer’s. They might need more help as time goes on.
  15. Scientists are studying Alzheimer’s to find better ways to help. There’s hope for the future.
  16. Doing things like walking, eating good food, and keeping the brain busy might help.
  17. Families can plan for the future, like talking about money and important decisions.
  18. It’s important for people to learn about Alzheimer’s. Understanding makes it easier for everyone.

How to diagnose?

Team of Experts:

Many different doctors work together to figure out if someone has Alzheimer’s. They each have special jobs, like looking at memory and doing tests.

Seeing How Daily Life is Affected:

Doctors also check how well someone can do regular things like cooking or getting dressed. This helps them understand how Alzheimer’s is affecting daily life.

New Brain Pictures:

There are special machines that take pictures of the brain to see if there are strange things inside. This helps doctors find Alzheimer’s early.

New Brain Pictures:

Scientists are studying if there are special signs in the blood that can show if someone has Alzheimer’s. This could make it easier to diagnose.

Unique Risk Assessments:

Doctors also check different things about a person, like their lifestyle and family history, to understand more about their risk of getting Alzheimer’s


Using Smart Technology:

Some doctors are trying to use smart gadgets like watches or phones to see changes in how someone does things every day. This can help with diagnosis.

Using Smart Technology:

Some doctors are trying to use smart gadgets like watches or phones to see changes in how someone does things every day. This can help with diagnosis.

Super Smart Computers:

There are very smart computers that are learning how to help doctors by looking at big amounts of information. This is called artificial intelligence (Al).

Different Ways People See Memory Loss:

Doctors are learning that different people from different cultures see memory loss in various ways. They are working to understand these differences.

What Patients and Families Say:

Doctors listen to what people with Alzheimer’s and their families say. Their stories and experiences are important for understanding the disease.


Watching for Early Signs:

Scientists have been doing studies for a very long time to see if they can find early signs of Alzheimer’s. This helps with predicting and treating the disease.

Thinking About the Environment:

Some scientists are checking if things around us, like air pollution or certain things we touch, can be connected to Alzheimer’s.


Medicines for Help:

  1. Medicines like donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine can help with memory and thinking.
  2. Memantine is used for more serious cases.

Daily Routine and Plants:

  1. Having a regular daily routine makes life easier.
  2. Using notes or calendars helps with planning.

Fun and Active Things:

Doing fun activities, like playing games or spending time with others, can help the brain.

Moving and Exercising:

Doing exercises or moving around regularly is good for the body and might help the brain too.

Eating Healthy Food:

Eating good and healthy food, like in the Mediterranean diet, is important for feeling better.

Remembering Safety:

Making sure the home is safe and comfortable can prevent accidents.

Help for Caregivers:

Caregivers play a big role in helping and need support and information too.

Joining Studies:

  1. Sometimes, people can join studies to try new treatments.
  2. It can also help researchers learn more about Alzheimer’s.


Getting Ready for the Future:

Planning for what might happen in the future, like deciding on money and legal things, is important.


  • Eat Good Food
  • Move Your Body
  • Keep Your Heart healthy
  • Keep Your Brain Busy
  • Be with people
  • Get Good Sleep
  • Stay Calm
  • Drink Smart no Smoking
  • Eat Brain – Healthy Foods
  • See the Doctor Regularly
  • Learn New Things

Risk Factors?

  1. The chance of getting Alzheimer’s goes up as you get older.
  2. If someone in your family had Alzheimer’s, you might have a higher chance of getting it too.
  3. Things that hurt your brain, like head injuries, might increase the risk.
  4. Problems with the heart, like high blood pressure, diabetes, or high cholesterol. Can be linked to Alzheimer’s risk.
  5. Smoking and not getting enough exercise can make the risk higher.
  6. Eating unhealthy foods might also be a risk factor.
  7. Women might have a higher risk than men, but it can happen to anyone.
  8. People with Down syndrome might have a higher risk of Alzheimer’s.
  9. Having problems with memory or thinking (MCl) can be a risk factor.
  10. Feeling lonely or being depressed  might increase the risk.
  11. Not having much education or mental stimulation can be linked to a higher risk.
  12. Not getting enough good sleep might be a risk factor.
  13. Some researchers think that things in the environment, like pollution, might play a role.
  14. Other health conditions, like obesity or not taking care of diabetes, can be risk factors.


When does Alzheimer’s start?

  • Alzheimer’s disease typically starts in old age.
  • The risk increases with advancing age, especially after65.

What is the behavior of a person with Alzheimer’s?

A person with Alzheimer’s disease shows changes in how they act as the illness moves forward. They might struggle to remember recent events or the names of people they know. Feeling confused about the time, where they are, or what’s around them is common. They might repeat questions a lot and find it hard to express themselves or remember everyday words.

Can depression cause Alzheimer’s?

  1. Scientists are studying if feeling very sad is connected to getting Alzheimer’s when you’re older.’’
  2. ‘’While we’re not sure yet, some studies suggest there might be a link.
  3. Feeling really sad for a long time could affect how your brain works and might be linked to Alzheimer’s risk.

What are the best foods that prevent Alzheimer’s?

  • Fatty Fish
  • Berries
  • Nuts and Seeds
  • Leafy Green Vegetables
  • Whole Grains
  • Turmeric
  • Broccoli
  • Pumpkin Seeds
  • Dark Chocolate
  • Coffee

How long do Alzheimer patients live?

People with Alzheimer’s disease can live in different amounts of time. On average, it’s about 8 to 10 years after their memory problems start. But some people may live much longer, even more than 20 years, while others might not live as long.

Is there a blood test for Alzheimer’s?

There isn’t a simple blood test that can say for sure if someone has Alzheimer’s disease. Doctors usually use a combination of questions, memory tests, and sometimes pictures of the brain to figure it out.

What gender is Alzheimer’s more common in?

More women tend to get Alzheimer’s disease than men. This might be because women usually live longer than men, and age is a big factor for Alzheimer’s. We’re not completely sure why this happens, but it could be because of different things like biology., hormones, and genes. Both men and women can get Alzheimer’s, but it’s just a bit more common in women.

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