Dengue fever causes

Dengue fever: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Treatment

Table of Contents

What is Dengue fever?

Dengue fever is a sickness caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. It’s common in warm places like tropical regions. People with dengue fever often get symptoms like a high fever. Had a headache, pain in the eyes, muscles, and joints, feeling sick, vomiting, and a rash. Sometimes it can become very serious and causes problems like bleeding or shock, which can be dangerous. There’s no special treatment for dengue fever, but doctors can help manage the symptoms. The best way to avoid it is to prevent mosquito bites by using bug spray and wearing long clothes.

What are the complications of dengue fever?

  1. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF): This happens in severe cases when the person starts bleeding inside the body.
  2. Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS): DHF can lead to this, where the person’s blood pressure drops a lot, causing shock.
  3. Organ, Damage: Sometimes, severe dengue fever can arm the liver, heart, and other organs, causing lasting health problems.
  4. Fluid Problems: DHF/DSS can make the body lose fluids, leading to dehydration and problems with the body’s balance of minerals.
  5. Death: In very rare cases, severe dengue fever can be deadly, especially if not treated quickly.  

It’s important to get medical help if someone has severe symptoms of dengue fever. Getting help early can prevent complications and improve chances of getting better.

Types of dengue fever?

Dengue Fever (DF)

This is the regular kind of dengue fever. It makes you feel sick with symptoms like fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. Most people get better with rest and care at home.

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)

This is a more serious type. It can make you bleed inside your body and have a low platelet count. If not treated, it can lead to organ damage and shock.

Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)

This is the most severe type. It causes a big drop in blood pressure because of fluid loss. It can lead to organ failure and even death if not treated quickly.

What are the Symptoms?


  • Sudden onset of high fever, often reaching up to 1040F (400C)
  • Fever may last for several days.
  • Fever may be accompanied by chills and sweating.

Severe Headache

  • Intense and persistent headache, often described as throbbing or pounding.
  • Headache can be debilitating and affect daily activities.

Plan Behind the Eyes

  • Discomfort or pain behind the eyes, especially when moving them.
  • Sensation of pressure or heaviness in the eye sockets.
  • Eye pain may worsen with eye movement.

Muscle and Joint Pain

  • Severe muscle and joint pain, commonly referred to as ‘’break bone’’ pain.
  • Pain typically localizes in the muscles, joints, and bones.
  • Movement and physical activity may exacerbate muscle and joint pain.

Nausea and Vomiting

  • Feeling of queasiness or upset stomach.
  • Episodes of queasiness or upset stomach.
  • Loss of appetite and aversion to food.
  • Appearance of a rash a few days after the onset of fever.
  • A rash may start on the arms, legs, and torso and spread to other parts of the body.
  • Rash is typically red or pink in color and may be accompanied by itching.


  • Feeling of extreme tiredness or exhaustion.
  • Fatigue may persist even after rest or sleep.
  • Reduced energy levels and difficulty performing daily tasks.

Mild Bleeding

  • Occasional nosebleeds.
  • Bleeding gums, especially when brushing teeth.
  • Minor bruising or petechiae (small red or purple spots) on the skin.

What are the Causes?

Viral Transmission

  • Dengue fever happens because of four kinds of dengue virus.
  • The virus spreads to people mainly through mosquito bites.
  • Infected mosquitoes get the virus when they bite someone who’s
  • Already sick, they can pass it to other people when they bite them.

Human Movement

  • People traveling from one place to another can spread the virus to new areas.
  • If someone who’s sick travels to a place where mosquitoes live, they can make the mosquitoes there sick too.
  • So, when mosquitoes bite other people, they can pass on the virus and make them sick.

Vector Population Dynamics

  • Things like temperature, humidity, and rain affect how many mosquitoes there are.
  • When it’s warm and wet, there tend to be more mosquitoes.
  • This means more chances for people to get bitten and get sick.

Urbanization and Environmental Changes

  • Big cities and changes to the environment can create places for mosquitoes to breed.
  • If there’s not good garbage cleanup or water storage, it gives mosquitoes places to lay eggs.
  • In cities, there are more people close together, so the virus can spread faster.

Globalization and Trade

  • People traveling around the world can take the virus with them to new places.
  • When they go to places with mosquitoes, the mosquitoes can get the virus.
  • Also, things like shipping goods can move mosquitoes to new places, spreading the virus.

Climate Change

  • Changes in weather, like hotter temperatures and more rain, can affect where mosquitoes live and how many there are.
  • These chances can make it easier for mosquitoes to live in new places and spread the virus.
  • So, when the climate changes, the risk of dengue fever can change too.

Socioeconomic Factors

  • Things like being poor, not having good housing, and not being able to see a doctor easily can make dengue fever worse.
  • If people don’t have good places to live and store water, it gives mosquitoes more places to breed.
  • Also, if there isn’t enough money for things like stopping mosquitoes or seeing a doctor, it’s harder to keep people safe.


Febrile Stage

  • This is when dengue fever starts. People suddenly get a high fever. The fever can last for a few days, usually between 2 to 7 days.
  • During this stage, people may also have headaches, muscle pain, and feel very tired.

Critical or Defervescence Stage

  • After the fever starts to go down, some people may start feeling worse.
  • They might have more severe symptoms like belly pain, vomiting a lot, and trouble breathing.
  • Doctors need to watch closely during this stage because it can lead to very serious problems if not treated quickly.

Recovery Stage

  • Finally, after going through the tough part, people start feeling better.
  • The fever goes away, and other symptoms start to get better too.
  • Even though the sickness is over, some people might still feel tired and weak for a few weeks.


Checking Symptoms

Doctors look at the symptoms a person has, like sudden high fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. They also ask about recent travel to places where dengue fever is common.

Blood Tests

There are different types of blood tests:

NS1 Antigen Test: It detects the dengue virus in the blood early in the infection.

RT–PCR Test: This test finds viral RNA in the blood to confirm dengue infection.

IgM and IgG Antibody Tests: These tests check for specific antibodies the body makes in response to dengue infection.

Other Tests

Doctors may do other tests like complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests to check for changes in blood cells and liver function. Sometimes, imaging tests like ultrasound or chest X–ray are used to look for complications in severe cases.

Clinical Evaluation

In places where lab tests are limited, doctors diagnose based on symptoms and where the person has been.

If someone has symptoms of dengue fever and has been in a place where it’s common, doctors may diagnose them with dengue fever.


Managing Symptoms

  • Taking acetaminophen (paracetamol) to reduce fever and relieve pain.
  • Resting and drinking plenty of fluids like water and electrolyte – rich drinks.

Preventing Dehydration

Drinking lots of fluids to avoid dehydration from fever and vomiting. Getting intravenous (IV) fluids if dehydration is severe.

Preventing Dehydration

Keeping a close eye on symptoms and seeing the doctor regularly. Checking for any complications that may need treatment.

Managing Complications

  • Hospitalization and close monitoring for severe cases with complications like bleeding or organ problems.
  • Treating complications with blood transfusions or other medical
  • Interventions.

Avoiding Certain Medications

Not taking medicines like aspirin or ibuprofen can increase bleeding risk.

Be careful with herbal remedies and supplements that may interact with other medications.

Follow – Up Care

  • Continuing to monitor health even after recovering from dengue fever.
  • Going to follow – up appointments with the doctor to ensure complete recovery.

Preventing Mosquito Bites

Using mosquito repellents and wearing protective clothing.

Sleeping under mosquito nets and keeping living spaces free of mosquitoes to prevent further spread of the virus.


Avoid Mosquito Bites

  • Use bug spray with DEET or wear long clothes when outside.
  • Sleep under a mosquito net or use screens on windows and doors.
  • Stay inside during dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are active.

Get Rid of Mosquito Breeding Sites

  • Dump out any standing water around your home, like in flower pots or buckets.
  • Cover water containers tightly to stop mosquitoes from laying eggs.
  • Keep your yard clean and remove any trash or old tires where mosquitoes can hide.

Help Your Community

  • Join efforts to clean up your neighborhood and report places with lots of mosquitoes to local health officials
  • Support actions like spraying insecticides to kill mosquitoes in areas with many of them.

Be Safe When Traveling

  • Use bug spray and wear protective clothes if you’re visiting places where dengue fever is common.
  • Stay in places with air conditioning or screens on windows to keep mosquitoes out.

Protect Yourself

  • Keep using bug spray and wearing long clothes, even if you’re in the city.
  • Pay extra attention to avoiding mosquito bites during outbreaks or times when more people are getting sick.

Follow – Up Care

  • Continuing to monitor health even after recovering from dengue fever.
  • Going to follow – up appointments with the doctor to ensure complete recovery.

Preventing Mosquito Bites

Using mosquito repellents and wearing protective clothing.

Sleeping under mosquito nets and keeping living spaces free of mosquitoes to prevent further spread of the virus.

What to eat in dengue?

  1. Hydrating Foods: Drink lots of water, coconut water, and clear fluids like herbal teas and diluted fruit juices.
  2. Soft and Easy – Digest Foods: Eat soft foods like rice, noodles, plain crackers, and toast. Choose bland and non–greasy options such as boiled or steamed vegetables and plain pasta.
  3. Fruits and Vegetables: Enjoy fruits with high water content like watermelon, oranges, and grapes.
  4. Include vegetables such as cucumber, lettuce, and spinach in salads or smoothies.
  5. Protein Sources: Have small portions of lean protein like skinless chicken, fish, tofu, and eggs.
  6. Avoid fatty or fried foods that are harder to digest.
  7. Nutrient–Rich Foods: Eat nutrients–rich foods like bananas, avocados, papayas, and berries.
  8. Choose whole grains like oats, brown rice, and quinoa for sustained energy.
  9. Probiotic Foods: Include probiotic–rich foods like yogurt or kefir to support digestion and gut health.
  10. Avoid sugary or processed foods that may worsen symptoms.
  11. Herbal Remedies: Some people find relief with herbal remedies like ginger tea, which can help reduce nausea.
  12. Always consult a healthcare provider before trying herbal remedies, especially if you’re taking medications.

Which antibiotic is best for dengue?

There isn’t a specific antibiotic for treating dengue fever because antibiotics only work against bacterial infections, not viruses like dengue. Instead, managing dengue fever involves taking acetaminophen (paracetamol) to lower fever and ease pain, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, and getting enough rest. It’s important to avoid medications like aspirin or ibuprofen that can make bleeding worse. If someone thinks they have dengue fever, they should see a doctor for the right care.

Dengue fever vaccine

There is a vaccine for dengue fever called Dengvaxia (CYD–TDV). It is available for people aged 9 to 45 who live in areas where dengue is common. However, this vaccine is not recommended for People who have never had dengue before because it might make the disease worse for them. It’s important to talk to a doctor to see if the vaccine is right for you. Remember, the availability of the vaccine may vary depending on where you live.


Can I take Panadol for dengue fever?

Yes, you can take Panadol (acetaminophen/paracetamol) for dengue fever. It helps lower fever and ease pain. Just follow the instructions on the packet or ask your doctor. Remember not to take medicines like aspirin or ibuprofen for dengue fever, as they can make bleeding worse. If you have any concerns, talk to your doctor.

Can I drink milk in dengue?

Yes, you can drink milk if you have dengue fever. Milk is good for you and helps keep you hydrated. It’s best to choose low–fat milk if you can. But if milk makes you feel uncomfortable, you might want to drink less or try milk without lactose. If you’re not sure what to do, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor.

Which fruit increases platelets in Dengue?

There isn’t a specific fruit that’s proven to increase platelet count during dengue fever. However, eating healthy fruits can support your overall health and recovery. Here are some fruits that are good to eat during dengue:

  • Papaya
  • Pomegranate
  • Kiwi
  • Strawberries
  • Blueberries
  • Raspberries
  • Oranges
  • Lemons
  • Grapefruits

Is yogurt good for dengue patients?

Yes, yogurt can be good for people with dengue fever. It has nutrients like protein and calcium that help keep you strong during illness. Also, yogurt has helpful bacteria called probiotics that can support stomach health, which might be affected by dengue. Just make sure to choose plain yogurt without added sugars for the best benefits. Overall, eating yogurt can help dengue patients get the nutrients they need and feel better.

Does platelet count decrease in dengue?

Yes, in dengue fever, it’s common for the platelet count to go down. Platelets help your blood clot, so having fewer platelets can make you bleed more easily. Doctors keep an eye on platelet levels in dengue patients to make sure they’re getting the right treatment.

Can dengue spread from person to person?

No, dengue cannot spread directly from one person to another. Dengue is mainly spread by infected mosquitoes. When a mosquito bites someone with dengue, it can become infected and spread the virus to other people it bites, So, to avoid getting dengue, it’s important to protect yourself from mosquito bites.

Is Vitamin C good for dengue?

There isn’t strong proof that Vitamin C directly treats or prevents dengue fever. However, having Vitamin C in your diet can help your body stay healthy and support your immune system. Foods rich in Vitamin C, like oranges and strawberries, can be part of a balanced diet that might help you feel better during dengue fever. But it’s important. To remember that Vitamin C alone isn’t a cure for dengue. If you think you have dengue fever, it’s best to see a doctor for advice.

Where I can do research on dengue fever?

If you want to do some more research on dengue fever causes then you can also visit Wikipedia.

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