Malaria Vaccine

Malaria Vaccine Discover New Updates: A New Hope For People

Malaria is a most common disease spread by mosquitoes, mainly in warm temperature regions. It affects poor countries the most and causes bad health and economic issues in places that can’t afford to deal with it properly. According to the 2011 World Health Organization Malaria Report, around 3.3 billion people were at risk of getting malaria in 2010. Most of the cases were in sub-Saharan Africa, where 81% of the 216 million malaria cases shown. In 2010, about 655,000 people died from malaria, and 91% of these deaths happened in Africa. Even though we have ways to prevent and treat malaria, it still causes a lot of sickness and death, especially among mothers and children.

Table of Contents

Malaria is a parasite that kills silently

Malaria parasites are tiny organisms that make animals, including humans, sick when spread by specific insects. Two main types, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, exist. Plasmodium has about 170 types, with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax being the most dangerous for humans. Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malaria, and Plasmodium know lesi also exist. Falciparum is the deadliest, while vivax is common in some regions. Building immunity to malaria takes time because the parasites have different surface parts, and repeated infections with the same type are needed for protection.

A complex life cycle of plasmodium parasites

Parasites go through a complicated life cycle with different stages that have their own unique characteristics and can be fought off by specific parts of our immune system. When you get malaria, it starts when a female mosquito bites you and injects tiny parasite forms called sporozoites into your blood. Some of these sporozoites make their way to your liver and infect liver cells. Inside these liver cells, the parasite changes and multiplies into another form called merozoites, which then attack your red blood cells and cause the symptoms and problems of malaria.

Changes In Red Blood Cells

After many rounds of this in your red blood cells, some of them change into gametocytes. When a mosquito bites you and takes in your blood, it also takes in these gametocytes. Inside the mosquito, these gametocytes join together and form something called an oocyst. This oocyst creates more sporozoites, which then move to the mosquito’s salivary glands, ready to infect the next person the mosquito bites. Something interesting is that two types of malaria, P. vivax and P. ovale, can produce dormant stages in the liver called hypnozoites. These hypnozoites can cause the disease to come back weeks or months after the first infection.

plasmodium parasites

Existing major malaria interventions

Controlling The insects:

Controlling the insects that are responsible for spreading malaria is really compulsory. Some countries have succeeded to get rid of malaria by using things like spraying inside houses and giving out special nets treated with bug-killing stuff. But in many poor countries, malaria is still a large health problem because of things like drug resistance, expensive medicines, not-so-great healthcare, and no good vaccine.

People Living Behaviour:

Even though we could save more people’s lives by using the things we already have to fight malaria, experts agree that just these won’t be enough to completely get rid of malaria in some areas. There are some tough challenges, like malaria becoming resistant to the drugs we use and the mosquitoes that spread it getting really good at avoiding bug sprays. So, we need additional tools to control malaria in these places where it’s still a large problem.

Affordable Malaria:

One of those tools could be a malaria vaccine. If we could make a vaccine that’s affordable and a lot of people can easily get it, and it could protect them from malaria for a long time and make a big difference in public health around the world. But right now, we don’t have that kind of vaccine. We’ve learned from the past that just relying on a few ways to fight malaria, like nets and bug sprays, isn’t enough. That’s why we still need a vaccine, along with other ways to get rid of malaria.

How Tools Can Be Affected:

For many years, people have been working tirelessly to make a vaccine that works well and does not cost too much. In the last decades, there’s been a bid push from governments, businesses, researchers, and experts to increase the development speed of a malaria vaccine. They’re doing clinical trials (which are tests to see if a vaccine works) all over the world, and the early results look like a hope. This examination is all about figuring out the problems that still exist and finding how experts in public health can deal with them, so we can minimize the burden of malaria and hopefully get rid of it by using safe, reliable, effective, and cheap malaria vaccines.

Methods:

To find the right research materials for this study, we searched in databases like Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar, and Academic Search Premier. We looked for articles and reviews published between 1990 and 2011. We used different words and combinations like “malaria vaccine,” “ways to stop malaria,” “how to prevent malaria,” “tests for malaria vaccines,” and “problems with controlling malaria” to find these studies. We only picked articles, notes, and reviews and saved their details, like who wrote them, their titles, where they were published, and what kind of documents they were, in a file for this review.

Malaria Vaccine

Malaria vaccines are a cost-effective means to combat the disease in impoverished nations. Advancements in technology and substantial funding from organizations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have accelerated vaccine development. The past decade has witnessed significant global progress in this endeavor. Researchers are now concentrating on creating vaccines that can effectively target multiple stages of the malaria parasite’s life cycle, which is vital for its survival and transmission. This collaborative effort holds promise for reducing the impact of malaria, particularly in resource-limited regions.

 

Significance of malaria vaccines

Recently, the vaccines have been doing well to fight against the diseases that spread with ease. We are carrying out the same thing for malaria, producing vaccines that can help people and stop malaria from spreading in communities. These malaria vaccines give us hope for controlling malaria. We have found some promising malaria vaccine options lately, and we’re getting better at using enhanced technology to improve them. Right now, according to the WHO Malaria Vaccine Rainbow, there are 38 candidates for stopping P. falciparum malaria and two for P. vivax malaria that are in advanced testing stages.

Potential target of malaria vaccine

Malaria vaccine candidates are classified based on which part of the malaria parasite’s life cycle they are targeting. There are four main stages we focuses on:

 

  1. When the mosquito first passes the parasite to a person (sporozoite stage).
  2. Before the parasite gets into the red blood cell of a person, while it’s in the liver (pre-erythrocytic or PE stage).
  3. When the parasite is inside red blood cells, causing problems (merozoite or erythrocytic stage).
  4. When gametocytes leave red blood cells and join together inside a mosquito to continue the infection (gametocyte stage).
malaria shot

Types of malaria vaccine:

  • PE stage vaccine
  • Anti-asexual blood stage (erythrocytic) vaccine
  • Transmission blocking vaccine
  • Requisite of 2nd-generation vaccine
  • Ideal Vaccine

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