Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Stages, Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a condition where there’s too much sugar in your blood. It happens because your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly.

The Insulin connection

Insulin is a hormone made by your body to help sugar get into your cells For energy. In type 2 diabetes, either your body doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin doesn’t work well.

Table of Contents

What is the normal sugar level by age?

Children and Teens

Before eating: Between 70 to 100 mg/dL (3.9 to 5.6 mmol/L)

After eating: Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L)

Adults (including older adults)

Before eating: Between 70 to 100 mg/dL (3,9 to 5.6 mmol/L)

After eating: Less than 150 mg//dL (7.8 mmol/L)

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Feeling Very Thirsty

  • Always feeling like you need to drink a lot of water.
  • Drinking more water than usual but still feeling thirsty.
  • Having a dry mouth, even after drinking water.

Going to the Bathroom Often

  • Needing to pee more often than usual, even at night.
  • Feeling like you have to pee again soon after going.
  • Accidentally leaking urine because you have to go so often.

Weight Loss Without Trying

  • Weight loss even though you’re not trying to.
  • Noticing your clothes feeling looser or your pants fitting differently.
  • Dropping pounds without changing how much you eat.

Feeling Tired All the Time

  • Feeling really tired, even after resting or sleeping.
  • Having low energy throughout the day.
  • Feeling worn out, especially in the afternoon.

Blurry Vision

  • Having trouble seeing clearly, like things are fuzzy or unclear.
  • Finding it hard to focus your eyes, especially at night.
  • Noticing changes in your vision suddenly.

Slow Healing Cuts and Scrapes

  • Cuts, scrapes, or bruises taking longer than usual to get better.
  • Seeing that wounds don’t seem to be healing like they should.
  • Getting infections in cuts that don’t heal properly.

Causes of type 2 diabetes:?

Insulin Resistance

  1. The body’s cells don’t respond properly to insulin, a hormone that helps control blood sugar.
  2. The pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels in check.
  3. Sometimes, having family members with Type 2 diabetes can increase your risk.

Unhealthy Habits

  1. Eating too much-processed food, sugary drinks, and fatty foods can lead to weight gain and insulin resistance.
  2. Not getting enough exercise or being inactive makes it harder for your body to use sugar properly.
  3. Carrying extra weight, especially around the belly, can increase your risk.

Genetic Factors

  1. If people in your family have Type 2 diabetes, you might be more likely to get it too.
  2. Some ethnic groups, like African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, have a higher risk.
  3. Sometimes, certain genes you inherit can affect how your body handles sugar.

Getting Older and Changes

  1. As you get older, your risk of Type 2 diabetes goes up, especially after age 45.
  2. Changes In hormones during pregnancy or menopause can affect how your body uses insulin.
  3. Things like pollution, stress, or where you live can sometimes play a role.

Other Health Problems

  1. Having high blood sugar levels, but not yet diabetes, can increase your risk.
  2. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a
  3. Higher chance of getting Type 2 diabetes.
  4. Health problems like high blood pressure, heart disease, or sleep apnea can make it more likely to get Type2 diabetes.



  1. Before getting Type 2 diabetes, some people had prediabetes.
  2. This means their blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough for diabetes.
  3. Prediabetes can lead to Type 2 diabetes, but changing habits can often stop it.

Early Type 2 Diabetes

  1. When someone has Type 2 diabetes, their blood sugar is high regularly.
  2. The body still makes insulin but it doesn’t work well.
  3. People might not notice symptoms, or they might be mild.

Getting Worse Over Time

  1. Insulin stops working even more, and the body makes less of it.
  2. Blood sugar keeps going up, so people might need medicine or insulin shots.
  3. Symptoms at night get worse, like feeling tired, blurry vision, or slow healing cuts.

Advanced Type 2 Diabetes

  1. At this stage, the body makes very little insulin, and blood sugar is hard to control.
  2. People might have serious problems like heart disease, nerve damage, or kidney issues.

Complications and Long – Term Effects

  1. If Type 2 diabetes isn’t managed well, it can cause big problems in the body.
  2. It can hurt the heart, kidneys, eyes, nerves, and feet.
  3. Taking care of yourself and getting help from doctors can prevent these problems.

Risk factors?

High Blood Pressure

  1. If your blood pressure is high, you have a higher chance of getting Type 2 diabetes.
  2. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels and make it harder for your body to control sugar levels.

Cholesterol Problems

  1. Having too much bad cholesterol and not enough good cholesterol can raise your risk.
  2. High cholesterol can block blood flow and make it harder for your body to handle sugar, leading to diabetes.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

  1. Women with PCOS have a bigger chance of getting Type 2 diabetes.
  2. PCOS can mess up hormones and how your body deals with sugar, Making blood sugar levels go up.

Sleep Problems

  1. Not sleeping well or having sleep problems can make diabetes more likely.
  2. Bad sleep messes with hormones that control hunger and sugar, raising the risk of diabetes.


  1. Smoking makes it easier to get Type 2 diabetes and harder to control sugar levels.
  2. Smoking hurts blood vessels and messes with how insulin works in your body, making it harder to use sugar.


  1. Feeling stressed all the time can raise blood sugar levels and make diabetes more likely.
  2. Stress messes with hormones that help your body use sugar, making it harder to keep levels normal.


  1. Some medicines, like steroids or certain pills, can raise blood sugar levels and make diabetes more likely.
  2. It’s important to talk to your doctor about how your medicines might affect your chances of getting diabetes.


Blood Tests

  1. Doctors use blood tests to check how much sugar is in your blood.
  2. They might do a test called A1C to see your average blood sugar levels over a few months.
  3. Another test is fasting blood sugar, where you don’t eat anything for at least eight hours before the test.

Symptoms and Check-Up

  1. Your doctor will ask about any problems you’ve been having, like feeling very thirsty or peeing a lot.
  2. They’ll also do a physical exam to see if you have any signs of diabetes, like high blood pressure or sudden weight loss.

Risk Factors

  1. Your doctor will ask about things that could make you more likely to get diabetes, like family history, age, weight, and lifestyle.
  2. If they think you might be at higher risk, they might suggest more tests or changes to lower your risk.

More Tests if Needed

  1. If your blood sugar levels are high or you have symptoms, your doctor might want to do more tests to be sure.
  2. They might repeat the blood sugar test or have you drink something sweet and check your blood sugar after.

Confirming the Diagnosis

  1. If your blood sugar levels stay high and you have symptoms, your doctor will say you have Type 2 diabetes.
  2. They’ll explain what this means and work with you to make a plan to take care of yourself.

Keeping an Eye on Things

  1. After finding out you have diabetes, you’ll need to see your doctor regularly to check your blood sugar and make sure you’re doing okay.
  2. Your doctor will help you learn how to manage your diabetes by eating healthy, taking medicine if needed, and doing other things to stay healthy.


Healthy Lifestyle

  1. Eat healthy foods like fruits, veggies, and whole grains. Watch how much you eat.
  2. Stay active with exercise like walking, swimming, or dancing. Try to do it most days for about 30 minutes.


  1. Sometimes, doctors give pills to lower blood sugar. These pills help your body use insulin better or make more insulin.
  2. If pills aren’t enough, some people need insulin shots to control blood sugar.

Checking Blood Sugar

  1. Use a blood sugar meter to check your blood sugar at home. Your doctor will tell you how often and what levels to aim for.

Regular Check – Ups

  1. See your doctor regularly to make sure your diabetes is okay and to check for other problems like high blood pressure or cholesterol.

Healthy Habits

  1. Quit smoking if you smoke. It can make diabetes worse.
  2. Get enough sleep and find ways to relax to keep your blood sugar in control.

Learn and Get Support

  1. Learn about diabetes and how to manage it. It helps you take charge of your health.
  2. Talk to your doctor, family, or friends for support. They can help you stay on track.


Metformin (Glucophage)

  1. Metformin is often the first medicine doctors give for Type 2 diabetes.
  2. It helps by lowering sugar levels In the blood.
  3. You take it as a pill, usually with meals.

Sulfonylureas (Glipizide, Glyburide)

  1. These medicines help your pancreas make more insulin.
  2. More insulin helps lower blood sugar levels.
  3. You take them as pills, usually before meals.

DPP – 4 Inhibitors (Sitagliptin, Saxagliptin)

  1. These drugs help your body release more insulin and lower blood sugar levels.
  2. They come in pill form and are taken once a day.

SGLT2 Inhibitors (Canagliflozin, Empagliflozin)

  1. These medications help remove extra sugar from your body through urine.
  2. They also lower blood pressure and may help you lose weight
  3. You take them as pills, usually once a day.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists (Exenatide, Liraglutide)

  1. These drugs help release more insulin and slow down how fast your stomach empties.
  2. They come as injections and are given once or twice a day or once a week.


  1. If other medicines don’t work well enough, you may need insulin,
  2. There are different types of insulin, and you inject it under your skin using a syringe, pen, or pump.


  • Eat Healthy
  • Stay Active
  • Keep a Healthy Weight
  • Drink Less Alcohol
  • Quit Smoking
  • See Your Doctor Regularly
  • Know Your Risk
  • Manage Stress

Type 2 diabetes diet?

Fruits and Vegetables

Eat lots of colorful fruits and veggies like barriers, apples, oranges, spinach, broccoli, and carrots.

Whole Grains

Choose whole grains like oats, brown rice, quinoa, and whole wheat bread instead of white bread and pasta.

Lean Proteins

Have lean proteins such as chicken without the skin, fish, tofu, beans, lentils, and low – fat dairy products.

Healthy Fats

Use healthy fats like olive oil, avocado, nuts, and seeds instead of butter or margarine.

Low – Glycemic Foods

Pick foods like legumes, sweet potatoes, and non – starchy vegetables, which don’t raise blood sugar quickly.

Portion Control:

Be mindful of how much you eat, especially carbs, to keep blood sugar and weight in check.

Stay Hydrated

Drink plenty of water and limit sugary drinks like soda and fruit juice.

Balanced Meals

Eat meals that have a mix of carbs, protein, and fats to keep blood sugar steady.

Healthy Snacks

Snack on nuts, Greek yogurt, veggies with hummus, or fruit between meals to avoid hunger spikes.

Avoid Sugary and Processed Foods

Cut down on desserts, candies, sugary cereals, and processed snacks, as they can raise blood sugar levels.


Can type 2 diabetes be cured?

No, Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured. But you can control it by changing your lifestyle, taking medicines, and checking your blood sugar regularly. With good control, you can stay healthy and lower the chance of problems.

Who is at risk for type 2 diabetes?

People who are overweight, have family members with diabetes, don’t move much, or have high blood pressure are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes. Age, ethnicity, and having diabetes during pregnancy also make it more likely.


Can eating too much sugar cause diabetes?

  1. Yes, eating too much sugar can lead to Type 2 diabetes.
  2. When you get a lot of sugar, it can make you gain weight and cause problems with how your body uses insulin, which can lead to diabetes.

How do you confirm diabetes?

To confirm diabetes, the doctor checks your blood sugar levels with a simple blood test. They use tests like fasting blood sugar or the A1C test to see if your blood sugar is too high, which tells them if you have diabetes.

What reduces blood sugar quickly?

Eating foods like vegetables and whole grains, drinking water, and being Active can lower blood sugar fast. Also, taking medicines as prescribed A doctor helps reduce blood sugar quickly.

What drink lowers blood sugar?

Green tea and water can help lower blood sugar. Always ask a doctor for Advice about managing blood sugar levels.

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