brain cell

What Is a Brain Cell: Types And Functions

Table of Contents

What is a brain cell?

A brain cell, also called a neuron, is like a tiny worker in our brain. It’s responsible for sending messages and helping us think, feel, and move. Neurons have different parts: a body, branches called dendrites, and a long tail called an axon. They talk to each other through connections called synapses. There are also other helpers in the brain called glial cells that take care of the neurons. Together, these cells make up our brains and help us do everything from learning new things to feeling emotions. 

The most common brain cells?

Neurons: Specialized Signaling Cells

  • Neurons are special cells that send messages to our brain and body. 
  • They help us think, feel, and move. 
  • Neurons have different parts: a body, branches that receive messages, 
  • and a long tail that sends messages to other neurons. 
  • Neurons talk to each other through connections called synapses. 
  • Many types of neurons do different jobs, like helping us see, hear, or move our muscles. 

Non-Neuronal Cells: Supporting the Brain’s Infrastructure

  • Non-neuronal cells, called glial cells, support and protect neurons in our brain and body. 
  • Glial cells are like helpers that outnumber neurons. 
  • Astrocytes are one type of helper cell. They support and feed neurons and help keep the brain’s environment stable. 
  • Oligodendrocytes make a special coating called myelin that helps messages travel faster along neurons. 
  • Microglia are the brain’s defenders, fighting off germs and cleaning up any messes. 
  • Ependymal cells help make the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. 

Brain cell types and function?


Neurons are like messengers in the brain. They help send and receive messages, allowing us to think, feel, and move. 


  1. Sensory Neurons: These neurons help us sense things like touch, taste, and sound. They send signals to our brains to tell us what’s happening around us.  
  2. Motor Neurons: Motor neurons help us move our muscles. They send signals from our brain to our muscles, telling them when to contract or relax. 
  3. Interneurons: Interneurons act as middlemen, helping neurons communicate with each other. They play a big role in how our brain processes information and responds to it. 

2.Glial Cells

Neurons are like messengers in the brain. They help send and receive messages, allowing us to think, feel, and move. 


  1. Astrocytes: Astrocytes provide support to neurons and help regulate the environment around them. They also help form connections between neurons. 
  2. Oligodendrocytes: These cells make a special coating called myelin, which helps messages travel faster along neurons. 
  3. Microglia: Microglia are like the immune system of the brain. They help protect the brain from germs and clean up any messes. 
  4. Ependymal Cells: Ependymal cells line the spaces in the brain and spinal cord, making a fluid that helps cushion and protect the nervous tissue. 

How many neurons are in a brain?

There are around 86 billion neurons in the human brain. These neurons are like tiny messengers that help our brains work. They’re responsible for things like thinking, remembering, and feeling. Keep in mind that this number can vary from person to person and might change over time as we grow and learn. 

Formation and Development of Brain Cells?

  1. Neurogenesis: Making New Brain Cells: Brain cells, called neurons, keep being made even after we’re born. 
  2. Helps Us Learn: Making new brain cells helps us learn new things and remember them better. 
  3. Important for Memory: Some of these new brain cells help us remember things by working in a special part of our brain called the hippocampus. 
  4. Connecting Brain Cells: Brain cells need to talk to each other to work. 
  5. Synaptogenesis: Synaptogenesis is when brain cells make connections, called synapses, to talk to each other. 
  6. Starts Early and Keeps Going: Brain cells start making these connections before we’re born and keep doing it as we grow and learn. 
  7. Makes Learning Possible: These connections help us learn new things and understand the world around us better. 
  8. Helps Messages Travel Faster: Myelination is when brain cells get wrapped in a special covering called myelin. This covering helps messages travel between brain cells faster. 
  9. Starts Early and Goes On for a While: Brain cells start getting this covering before we’re born, and it keeps happening as we grow up. 
  10. Makes Our Brain Work Better: Having this covering helps our brain work better, making it easier for us to learn, remember things, and make decisions. 

Role of Brain Cells in Learning and Memory?

Brain Cells and Learning:

Brain cells, called neurons, help us learn new things. They have special connections called synapses that get stronger when we learn something new. This process is like building a stronger bridge between brain cells to help information travel better.

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP):

When we learn something, the connections between brain cells can get stronger and stay that way for a long time. This is called long-term potentiation (LTP). It’s like making a memory stick around in our brain so we can remember it later. 

Making Memories with Neural Circuits:

Our brain cells work together in groups, forming circuits that help us remember things. When we learn something new, these circuits get activated and change a little bit to store the new information. This makes it easier for us to remember things later on. 

Impact of Brain Cell Dysfunction

Neurological Disorders

  1. Seizures and Fits: When brain cells don’t work right, it can cause seizures or fits, like in epilepsy. 
  2. Forgetting Things and Getting Confused: Brain cell problems can make us forget things and get confused, like Alzheimer’s disease. 
  3. Cognitive Impairment:
  4. Thinking and Problem-Solving Troubles: Brain cell issues can make it hard to think, solve problems, and understand things. 
  5. Problems with memory and Learning: Brain cell trouble can make it tough to remember new things or learn new stuff. 

Motor Dysfunction

  1. Weakness and Shaking Muscles: Brain cell problems can make our muscles weak or shaky, making it hard to move properly. 
  2. Trouble Moving and Keeping Balance: Conditions like Parkinson’s disease can cause problems with moving smoothly and keeping our balance. 
  3. Psychiatric Disorders:
  4. Feeling Sad or Moody: Brain cell issues can lead to feeling sad or moody a lot, like depression or bipolar disorder. 
  5. Seeing or Believing Things That Aren’t Real: Brain cell troubles can cause us to see or believe things that aren’t real, like schizophrenia. 

Impact on Overall Health

  1. Trouble Sleeping: Brain cell problems can mess up our sleep, making it hard to sleep at night or making us feel tired during the day. 
  2. Getting Sick More Often: When brain cells aren’t working right, it can weaken our body’s defenses and make us more likely to get sick.

What role do glial cells play in brain function?

  1. Supporting Neurons: Glial cells help hold neurons in place and keep the brain’s structure intact. They also make sure neurons have what they need to work properly. 
  2. Speeding Up Signals: Glial cells wrap neurons in a fatty substance called myelin, which helps electrical signals travel faster. This makes communication between neurons quicker and more efficient. 
  3. Supplying Nutrients: Glial cells, especially astrocytes, bring nutrients like glucose and oxygen to neurons from blood vessels. They also clean up waste and extra chemicals to keep the brain healthy. 
  4. Helping Neurons Communicate: Glial cells can affect how neurons talk to each other by releasing and taking up chemicals called neurotransmitters. This can change how strong or weak the connections between neurons are. 
  5. Protecting the Brain: Microglia, a type of glial cell, act like the brain’s immune system. They help fight off germs and clean up any damage or debris, keeping the brain safe and healthy. 


What happens when brain cells are damaged?

When brain cells are damaged, it can cause problems with how the brain works. This might mean trouble with thinking, moving feelings, or other things the brain does. The effects of the damage can vary depending on how hard it is and where it happens in the brain. Sometimes, the brain can find some of the damage on its own, but other times, the damage might be permanent and cause lasting issues. Treatment for brain cell damage can include different kinds of medicine, therapy, or even surgery, depending on what caused the damage and how severe it is. 

Can brain cells regenerate?

Yes, some parts of the brain can make new brain cells, a process called neurogenesis. But not all parts of the brain can do this. 

  1. Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus: One part of the brain, called the hippocampus, can make new brain cells throughout life. This helps with learning, memory, and mood. 
  2. Limited in Other Areas: Other parts of the brain can also make new brain cells, but not as much. For example, the part of the brain that helps us smell things can make some new cells too.
  3. Things That Affect Neurogenesis: Doing things like exercising or keeping our brains active can help make more new brain cells. But stress and getting older can make it harder for our brains to make new calls. 

How many brain cells does a human have?

The average adult brain has around 86 billion brain cells called neurons. Neurons are tiny messengers that help our brains work. Along with neurons, there are also a similar number of helper cells called glial cells. These cells support and protect neurons, making sure our brain functions properly. Together, neurons and glial cells create a complex network that allows us to think, feel, and move. 

How do brain cells work?

  1. Sending Messages: Neurons use electricity to send messages. They have a body and long branches called axons and dendrites. When a neuron wants to send a message, it creates an electrical signal that travels down its axon. 
  2. Passing Messages: At the end of the axon, the electrical signal triggers the release of special chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals travel across tiny gaps, called synapses, to the dendrites of other neurons. 

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